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Evidence of Fab fragment gene in an invertebrate: The sea star Asterias rubens

Michel Leclerc

556 rue Isabelle Romée, 45640 Sandillon, France

E-mail : mleclerc45@gmail.com

Nicolas Kresdorn

GenXpro de, Frankfurt, Germany

DOI: 10.15761/CRT.1000143

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Abstract

Fc receptor gene, was just discovered with the emergence of Fab fragments gene, in Asterias rubens. These last ones were described in Ig light chain and Ig heavy chain, when compared to mouse genome

Introduction

The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the mass of information that has accumulated on the primitive sea star antibody since about 1983. This work has emanated from our laboratory, those of Gothenburg (Dr Sam Dupont), those of GenX pro (Frankfurt), those of Fasteris (Switzerland).

Our purpose will be to recall, the homologies between the primitive antibody and the mouse Igkappa chain [1], the presence of two Immunoglobulin sites in this last one, the specificity of this « antibody » to the the antigen HRP which induces the reaction : » antigen-antibody », at last the existence in the sea star immune system of the Fc receptor gene [2].

We present now, the last results, concerning this primitive antibody : the emergence of Fab fragments in the immunized and non-immunized sea star transcriptomes, when compared to mouse genome.

Materials and methods

Sea stars were obtained from the Biology Institute (Gothenburg University)
Immunizations to HRP (Horse-radish peroxydase), genomic studies were already described [1].
Briefly, after ligation of adapters for Illumina's GSII sequencing system, the cDNA was sequenced on the Illumina GSII platform sequencing.

1.100 bp from one side of the approximately 200 bp fragments sequences were assembled using Velvet [3].

Results

First a comparison between non-immunized sea star genome and mouse genome was performed.
Studies were compared to mouse Immunoglobulin Light chain, then to heavy chain:

One contig (Contig9579) could be annotated via TBLASTX to Mus musculus "Mus musculus immunoglobulin IgG2a light chain Fab fragment (Mab10CK) mRNA, partial cds" from the NCBI database (gi|2852986|gb|AF042656.1|), with an e-value of 4.15e-05. On an aligned region of 21 amino acids, 14 positive and 9 identical amino acids were found.

5'CAGAGTCACCAGGTGCTGTGTTGACATCAGCACTTTCTGAATCCACCTCCATTGGTTGAT
CCACTTCCTCTTTCACTATAGTTGACGATTTGATATCAACACTGTCACCTGTAAGCGCAT
CAACACCGCTTGTTATATCAACAGACGATCTCCTTTGTGGATCCACTTTTTGATCGGTGG
ATAGAGGCGGAGTGGATGACTCCATCTTTGCTAATGTTTTGTCATCGGCTAATGTTGATG
AACTTTCTTCAGCTTTTACCTCGGTCTTCACATCCACTGTTTGGTTTTCTGATTTCACGG
AAACAGTTGATGTCGTTTTGACTGGATCCACTGACTTATCAGCCAATGTTCCCTGCGGAG
TTGTTGATGTACTTTGTTGAGAGATGGCTGTGAAGGGATTTGTGGCGGGATCGAAGGAAG
CTCCTAAGCCTTCCTCCCCTGGGGTTGGCGTTTCTAGAAGCGAGGAATCTTTGGCATCTT
CGAAACACAAGGGATGGTATGTCCTGGAGTTGAACCTGACAGCATCTCTCAGTTTCCAAA
CCTCTTCATCTTCATCAAAGAATTGCTCAAACGGCTCATGACACAGAGAACACATCTCAT
CGCCAGTGACGTTTCCATCAATAGCCACACAGAGGATGCCATCTTTATCAGGTTTAGACT
CTGCAGTCATCTCCTCAAAGAAACTGCTCCTCTCTTCATCCACTTCGTTGATTTCTTCAA
AGTCCAACCACTGATCGACTTCATAGAACCACTTCCTGGACTGAACAGCCTTCACTCCAT
CCTTCTCACGACGATTCTGACGGAAGTGCCAGTCCAGATGTTTCCGATATCTGTCCATTT
CATCAATGACAAAGCGCATACCA3'

Second, results with mouse Ig heavy chain were obtained, when compared to mouse genome:

One contig (c37102_g1_i1) could be annotated via TBLASTX to Mus musculus "Mus musculus immunoglobulin IgG2a heavy chain Fab fragment (Mab10CH) mRNA, partial cds" from the NCBI database (gi|2852988|gb|AF042657.1|), with an e-value of 6.1e-06. On an aligned region of 20 amino acids, 14 positive and 10 identical amino acids were found.

5'AACTGCGCCACCAGCAAGTATGCCGTACCCTTCGGCTATTGCGACGGCACCAGACTACCC
CAAAGCAATGGCAGCATCGGCCCCTCCATTTGGTGGTGAAGCTCCGCCCCCAAGTTACGA
GGAGGCTGTTGGCAAAACAGACAGACTGGCCAACGCAAGGAACGATGAGGATTACGTCAT
TGACGATCAGTTCGTGCCTAGTTATCCGTACTTCAACCTTTCGGTTGATGTACCACCGGG
TTCCCGCCATTAACCCCATGGAGTTTAAAGAGA3'

At last, results with immunized sea star genome were given when compared to mouse IgG2a light chain :
One contig (Contig5278|m.6828) could be annotated via TBLASTX to Mus musculus "Mus musculus immunoglobulin IgG2a light chain Fab fragment (Mab10CK) mRNA, partial cds" from the NCBI database (gi|2852986|gb|AF042656.1|), with an e-value of 1.62e-05. On an aligned region of 38 amino acids, 23 positive and 14 identical amino acids were found.

5'TCTTTGGAAACCCCGAACCGGAACTGACCTGGCAGAGGAAGAGCCCAGCAGGTGCAGACC
TACCACTCGGTGCAGAGCTCCGATTCAACAACCAGCATTTGATCCTCAGGAATATACAGA
TTGAAGATGCTGGGGAGTATGAATGTATGACCACTAATGGTGGAGGAAGAACATCTGGAA
CCATTACTGTCCGAGTCCCACCCACCTGGCTGCAAGAAATCTCTGACATCGAGGGGAACA
TCTACGGAGACTTATCCATGAAGTGTAAAGCAGAGAGTCCCGATGGCGTAACCTACACAT
GGTACCGCAATGCTGAGGTGATCCAAGACCTTCCCAGGCATCAGTTCAGCAACGGTTTGA
AGACACTCACCATCCAGAATCTGACTGTGGAAGACACCGGGATGTACCAGTGTATGGCTA
GTAATGAATACGGCCAGATATACACCACAGCACAGGTCACTGTACAAGCCATTGCACCAT
GGTTTGAGACGCCCCTTGAGGTGGACCAGCCAGCACCCCGTGGTGGCTCAGTGACCATCC
TCTGCCAACCTAAAGCTGCACCCACACCCGTCATCGTCTGGACCAAAGGAAGCGAGACCA
TTGAGAACGGTGGCCGCTACACCGTCATGGACAACGGTGATTTGATGATCAGTGGTGTTA
GTGATGCAGATGGAGGAGACTACACCTGTACGGCTACCAATAGCATGGGAACTGATTCAA
GCACTGGTAGCTTGATCATCAAGGATGGTACAGCCATGGTGGAGCCACCCATGGCATTGA
CTGTAAACGAAGGGGAGATGGGCACATTGACCTGCCGTGCATCACACGATCCGTTCTTTG
AGCTGGAGTATGTGTGGCTGAAAGAAGGAATCCAAGTTGATCCTCGTCTCCCTAACTATG
AGATACCTCAGATCCAAATGGGCGAGCCAAGTCAGCTGCATATCAAAGACGCCACTATGG
ATCTAGGAGGGGAGTACATGTGC3'

Discussion and conclusion

It is clear that mouse Fab IgG2a light chain gene, mouse Fab IgG2a heavy chain gene, are present in the sea star genome. It is also noticeable that these genes, show a « symmetry », or at least a similarity in their configurations: we count on an aligned region of 21 amino-acids, 14 positive and 9 identical in the case of IgG2a light chain, 14 positive and 10 identical in the case of IgG2a heavy chain out of 20 amino-acids. As for immunized sea star IgG2a light chain which is only studied, in the present work : the number of positive amino-acids increases, in a significant manner (on an aligned region of 38 amino-acids, 23 positive instead 9 in non-immunized sea stars to HRP : undoubtly it is due to immunization (further studies are bound to unravel the phenomenon).

In addition to the work on Fc receptor gene [2], it appears that Fab fragments gene, corroborate the existence of the Invertebrate Primitive Antibody through the Asterias rubens history [4].

References

  1. Vincent N, Osteras M, Otten P, Leclerc M (2014) A new gene in A. rubens: A sea star Ig kappa gene. Meta Gene 2: 320-322. [crossref]
  2. Leclerc M (2016) Immunol Lett submitted
  3. Zerbino DR (2007) Asterias rubens: Evidence of NF-Kappa B Genes. Gen Res 18: 821-829.
  4. Leclerc M (2016) Sea star Genomic Studies Following 2.

Editorial Information

Editor-in-Chief

Jalal K. Ghali
Mercer University

Article Type

Short Communication

Publication history

Received: August 19, 2016
Accepted: September 13, 2016
Published: September 16, 2016

Copyright

©2016 Leclerc M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation

Leclerc M, Kresdorn N (2016). Evidence of Fab fragment gene in an invertebrate: The sea star Asterias rubens. Clin Res Trials 2: DOI: 10.15761/CRT.1000143.

Corresponding author

Michel Leclerc

556 rue Isabelle Romée, 45640 Sandillon, France

E-mail : mleclerc45@gmail.com

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