Follow us on :


Take a look at the Recent articles

Heart rate regulation and stress resistence of elite athletes

Korobeynikov G

National University of Physical Education and Sport, Kiev, Ukraine

E-mail : george.65@mail.ru

Korobeinikova L

National University of Physical Education and Sport, Kiev, Ukraine

DOI: 10.15761/JIC.1000155

Article
Article Info
Author Info
Figures & Data

Abstract

The role of heart rate regulation of elite athletes in process of stress resistance of organism were studied. The 41 elite athletes, members of the Ukrainian National Team in Greco-Roman wrestling were examined. The level of psycho-emotional resistance (stress tolerance) was determined by the results of test called Stress Test. The estimation of autonomic regulation of the heart rhythm was performed using cardiomonitor Polar-S800 with the registration of the spectral characteristics of heart rate.

The results are show the distinction in variables of stress resistance in different age groups. The data indicate the decreasing of stress resistance index in third age group for concerning to younger groups. The spectral analysis of heart rate variability reveals of better system of autonomic regulation in older athletes. However, age-related changes affect the activation of compensatory mechanisms preventing aging processes. In particular, it appears to strengthen of neuro hormonal activation centers and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system. Reducing of absolute values of SD1 and SD2 in athletes of third age group for compared to younger athletes indicates the slowing of aperiodic and periodic fluctuations of cardio intervals.

Key words

 heart rate regulation, stress resistance, elite athletes, spectral characteristics.

Introduction

The study of stress resistance of athletes during extreme situations in sport activity is a one of the actual ways of modern sporting science. Sports activities as extreme kind of human activities are connected with the presence of psycho-emotional factors which can influence the efficiency of sport results [1,2]. The autonomic nervous system which responds to the regulation of heart rate is the one of the key components of functional states of athletes during sport activity. In some sources inform about key role of heart rate regulation in adaptation reactions of the general organism of athletes during muscular activity [3,4]. In some works it is indicated that stress resistance to renders influences the capacity to tolerate training loads and ability of training of elite athletes [5-7]. The reason of the stress is a multifactor syndrome which influences to reduction of productivity of athletes [8]. Hartmann U and Mester J [9] state that the one of the major links of the decreasing capability is imbalance between stress and recovery after loads. But the relation between tension of heart rate regulation systems and stress resistance in elite athletes during sport activity are not sufficient studied. The aim of the work the study of role of heart rate regulation of elite athletes in process of stress resistance of organism.

Methods

The 41 elite athletes, members of the Ukrainian National Team in Greco-Roman wrestling were examined. All of the athletes are the winners of Ukrainian National Championship and seven athletes are the winners of European and World Championships. The athletes were divided in three age groups. The first group – 15 athletes aged 18-20, the second group – 14 athletes aged 21-25, the third group – 12 athletes aged 21-25. The experimental study was approved by the Ethics Committees for Biomedical Research with accordance the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration.  The level of psycho-emotional resistance (stress tolerance) was determined by the results of test called «Stress Test». The results of the tests allowed determining the criteria of stress resistance, capacity and impulsiveness. The method is included in apparatus- program psycho-diagnostic complex “Multipsychometr -05”. The estimation of autonomic regulation of the heart rhythm was performed using cardio monitor «Polar-S800» with the registration of the spectral characteristics of heart rate. The analysis of non-stationary transient system of regulation of heart rate analysis the scatter grams as a non-parametric method of analysis was used [10]. Determine the parameters SD1 (display aperiodic fluctuations of heart rate) and SD2 (slow oscillations of the heart rate).

Results

The results are show the distinction in variables of stress resistance in different age groups. The data indicate the decreasing of stress resistance index in third age group for concerning to younger groups (p=0.03). According to modern conception the stress resistance indicate the possibility of maintaining of the sufficient level of capacity of nervous system in situations of psycho emotional stress. Thus, the athletes of an older age group showed better results of stress resistance comparing with younger age groups.

The Table 1 reflects the medians of spectral characteristics of heart rate variability in different age groups of athletes. Analysis of data of Table 1 confirms that there is an actual distinction in heart rate variability between athletes of different age groups.

Variables

Age groups

First (n=15)

Second (n=14)

Third (n=12)

Mean RR, ms

1114,96 ± 49,80

1080,11 ± 34,50

986,10 ± 33,01*#

STD RR, ms

125,21 ± 4,37

112,33 ± 3,71*

101,28 ± 2,99*#

RR triangular index

19,81 ± 0,86

20,09 ± 1,18

13,92 ± 1,83*#

VLF, ms2

9501,86 ± 382,01

7392,82 ± 254,19*

10105,20 ± 581,64#

LF, ms2

3164,43 ± 359,55

2849,82 ± 266,26

2260,10 ± 310,51*

HF, ms2

2807,00 ± 231,49

2471,82 ± 197,38

13928,30 ± 2428,02*#

LF/HF

1,48 ± 0,03

1,64 ± 0,01

1,94 ± 0,06*

SD1, ms

67,71 ± 5,41

62,26 ± 7,79

47,68 ± 6,33*#

SD2, ms

160,37 ± 10,22

142,95 ± 15,16*

132,69 ± 18,99*#

 

Table 1 Medians of spectral characteristics of heart rate variability of elite athletes in different age groups (n=41)

In addition, in older age group of athletes there is a higher level of tension of regulation of heart rate for compared to the younger athletes. This is confirmed by reduced of values STD RR and RR triangular index Table 1. The lowest level of activation of VLF observed in athletes of younger age group, the highest - in the older group of athletes Table 1. This fact points to enhance neuro hormonal activation of the centers of the autonomic nervous system in elite athletes in terms of age involution [10]. However, increased of the VLF values first age group for compared to the second group of athletes point to imperfect mechanism of neuro humoral regulation Table 1. At the same time, the lowest value of LF in athletes of older age group for compared to younger indicate the optimal activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system Table 1.

Thus, spectral analysis of heart rate variability reveals of better system of autonomic regulation in older athletes. However, age-related changes affect the activation of compensatory mechanisms preventing aging processes. In particular, it appears to strengthen of neuro hormonal activation centers and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system. Reducing of absolute values of SD1 in athletes of third age group for compared to younger athletes the indicates the slowing of aperiodic fluctuations of cardio intervals Table 1. Smaller values of SD2 in athletes of third age group for compared to younger athletes point to slowing of periodic oscillations of cardio intervals, which is consistent with the spectral characteristics of heart rate Table 1.

Conclusions

The athletes of an older age group showed better results of stress resistance comparing with younger age groups.

2. The age-related changes affect the activation of compensatory mechanisms preventing aging processes in elite athletes. In particular, it appears to strengthen of neuro hormonal activation centers and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system.

3. The increasing of neurohormonal centers of regulation in elite athletes of older age group accompanied by slowing of aperiodic and periodic fluctuations of cardio intervals.

References:

  1. Feltz DL, Lirgg CD (1998) Perceived team and player efficacy in hockey.  J ApplPsychol83: 557-564.[Crossref]
  2. Tauer JM, Harackiewicz JM (2004) The effects of cooperation and competition on intrinsic motivation and performance.  J PersSocPsychol86: 849-86. [Crossref]
  3. Robin SV (2007) Mental Skills Training in Sport. Handbook of Sport Psychology. Third Edition Copyright: John Wiley & Sons: 287-309.
  4. Korobeynikov G, Mazmanian K, Jagello W (2010) Psychophysiological states and motivation in elite judokas. Archives of Budo Science of Martial Arts6: 129-136.
  5. Eduardo D, Gonzalez L (2011) Successful technical-tactical combinations in the standing position. International Journal of Wrestling Science1: 19-25.
  6. Brent SR (1990) A tool for measuring stress tolerance in elite athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 2: 51-62.
  7. Freitas CG, Aoki MS, Schultz Arruda AF, Nakamura FY, Moreira A (2013) Training load, stress tolerance and upper respiratory tract infection in basketball players. Brazilian Journal of Kinanthropomerty and Human Performance15:49-59.
  8. Kraemer W, Duncan ND, VolekJS(1998) Resistance Training and Elite Athletes: Adaptations and program Considerations. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physicaly Therapy28: 110-119.
  9. Hartmann U, Mester J (2000) Training and overtraining markers in selected sport events.  Med Sci Sports Exerc 32: 209-215.[Crossref]
  10. Korobeynikov G, Korobeynikova L, Chernozub A, Makarchuk M (2011) The autonomic regulation of heart rate of athletes with different levels of sensor motor response J. Clinical & Experimental Cardiology 201: 4-8.

Editorial Information

Editor-in-Chief

Massimo Fioranelli
Guglielmo Marconi University

Article Type

Research article

Publication history

Received:February 20, 2016
Accepted: March 14, 2016
Published: March 18, 2016

Copyright

©2016Korobeynikov G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation

Korobeynikov G (2016) Heart rate regulation and stress resistence of elite athletesJ IntegrCardiol,1: DOI: 10.15761/JIC.1000155

Corresponding author

Korobeinikova G

Asst Professor, Member of the Scientific Group of Ukrainian National Teams of Olympic Wrestling, As. Professor of the National University of Physical Education and Sport, Kiev, Ukraine.

E-mail : george.65@mail.ru

Variables

Age groups

First (n=15)

Second (n=14)

Third (n=12)

Mean RR, ms

1114,96 ± 49,80

1080,11 ± 34,50

986,10 ± 33,01*#

STD RR, ms

125,21 ± 4,37

112,33 ± 3,71*

101,28 ± 2,99*#

RR triangular index

19,81 ± 0,86

20,09 ± 1,18

13,92 ± 1,83*#

VLF, ms2

9501,86 ± 382,01

7392,82 ± 254,19*

10105,20 ± 581,64#

LF, ms2

3164,43 ± 359,55

2849,82 ± 266,26

2260,10 ± 310,51*

HF, ms2

2807,00 ± 231,49

2471,82 ± 197,38

13928,30 ± 2428,02*#

LF/HF

1,48 ± 0,03

1,64 ± 0,01

1,94 ± 0,06*

SD1, ms

67,71 ± 5,41

62,26 ± 7,79

47,68 ± 6,33*#

SD2, ms

160,37 ± 10,22

142,95 ± 15,16*

132,69 ± 18,99*#

 

Table 1 Medians of spectral characteristics of heart rate variability of elite athletes in different age groups (n=41)