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Hip osteoarthritis surgical profiles and morbid obesity: a case series and literature review

Ray Marks

Department of Health, Physical Education, Gerontological Studies and Services, School of Health &Professional Studies, City University of New York, York College, USA and Department of Health and Behavior Studies, Columbia University, Teachers College, USA

E-mail : rm226@columbia.edu

DOI: 10.15761/CCRR.1000203

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Abstract

Morbid obesity is a possible mediating or moderating factor in the natural history of disabling hip osteoarthritis, often classified as an age associated single disease entity with homogeneous inter-individual and disease characteristics. In this brief we examined the baseline characteristics of a sample of 1000 hip osteoarthritis surgical cases to examine how frequently one might expect to find morbidly obese patients among a severely disabled hip osteoarthritis cohort undergoing primary or secondary hip surgery. We specifically sought to establish the extent to which this subgroup exists and whethertheir health profiles were similar or different fromunderweight cases. As well, wereviewed selected cases 65 years and youngerand prevailing literature to discern if morbid obesity is likely to increase the risk of adverse outcomes among this hip osteoarthritis subgroup. To this end, data from the available records of severely disabled hip osteoarthritis cases undergoing primary or secondary surgeryas well as the literature were scrutinized.Results show: 1) Cases of end-stage hip osteoarthritis are more likely to be overweight than of normal weight, with an equally small number of underweight and morbidly obese cases;2) In comparing the underweight and morbidly obese cases, most of the latter are likely to havehigher rates of one or more metabolic and/or other chronic health conditions, and a higher percentageare likely to be hospitalized for secondary surgeries or complications; 3) The functional status of morbidly obese candidates, is quite low, even when only young candidates are examined and many have already experienced some form of orthopedic complication; 4) Profiles of 2 superobese (BMI >50) surgical candidates reveal, evidence of extensive prior orthopedic problems, and medical comorbidities. These findings and current research data indicate patients who are morbidly obese are receiving hip joint replacements, but that this group may be at a disadvantage health wise as well as functionally.

Key words

body mass, hip joint, morbid obesity, osteoarthritis, outcomes, surgery

Introduction

The disease known as hip osteoarthritis is a commonhighly painful disabling joint disease with no known cure affecting a large proportion of the adult population [1,2]. Onepotentially preventable factor that may mediate or moderate the onset and progression ofhip osteoarthritis is obesity [3].Moreover, even though surgery to replace a diseased joint is generally successful, the presence of extremely high body weights in excess of ideal body weight[4,5]may impact the outcome of surgery for hip osteoarthritis quite negatively, rather than improving health status [5-7].

Although a negative outcome could further exacerbate the original problem, even if surgery is technically successful, very few community based endeavors exist to assist the obese hip osteoarthritis patient to attain a healthful weight, and healthy related behaviors either before or after surgery. Moreover, very few treatment centers specifically designed for those cases suffering from excess obesity are evident, even though these could potentially reduce the need for surgery, or delay this, or permit more healthful surgical outcomes at the outset. To raise awareness about this issue for the clinician and patient, this brief providesa snapshot of prevailing data that highlight the relevance ofthe aforementioned ideas.

To this end, a sizeable cohort of subjects with disabling hip osteoarthritis undergoing surgery were examined first, to discern body mass distributions in general, and rates of cases presenting with evidence of excess or morbid obesity, in particular. Cases defined as being morbidly obese, referring to cases 59-100% above their ideal weight were assessed with respect to the presence ofcomplications arising from prior surgeries, and/or the presence of comorbid health conditions, if any.In addition, given the controversy surrounding whether hip joint replacement surgery is appropriate for the morbidly obese, a systematic examination of the related literature was conducted.

We anticipated a small, but clinically important proportion ofcases with hip osteoarthritis requiring some form of primary or secondary hip replacement surgery would be morbidly obese, meaning their body mass index would be equal to or exceed 40. Moreover, in the event body mass is a risk factor for osteoarthritis, we anticipated this sub group would include individuals younger than 65 years of age, and that a fair proportion of these cases would be found to experience severe complications, protracted hospital stays, and prevailing comorbid health conditions, regardless of age. We anticipated that the research in this area on the whole would reveal that morbidly obese hip osteoarthritis cases may be at high risk for complications after surgery, despite efforts to improve their condition.

Materials and methods

Body mass indices (BMIs) calculatedretrospectively from available height and weight data of a sample of 1000 cases of hip osteoarthritis requiring unilateral or bilateral hip replacement, as well as revision surgery were examined. In addition to demographic data, the presence and type ofaccompanying chronic health conditions, and reasons for hospitalization noted on the chart, the body mass indices of the cohort were categorized into 4 broad categories: underweight (BMI <than 20kg.m-2), normal weight (BMI 20-24.9kg.m-2), overweight (BMI 25-29kg.m-2), and obese (>29kg.m-2) categories. Grade 1 obesity was categorized as having a BMI 30-35, grade II obesity cases has BMIs 36-39, and morbid obesity or obese grade III was denoted as a BMI of 40kg.m-2 or greater. These data were systematically entered into SPSS version 17.0 files to generate descriptive data, and where data were amenable to quantitative analysis, an a priori significance level of 0.05 was adopted. Excluded were cases with rheumatoid arthritis and hip fractures.

Results

The mean age of the sample of 997 cases with complete date was 65.5 ±12.98 years (range 23-94) and the majority (57%) were women. Calculations of body mass index showed most or 67% were overweight, on average. There were 40 excessively or morbidly obese cases, with body mass indices ranging from 40-68, and of these cases,75% were 65 years of age or younger, and 22 were females and 18 were males.Among those in the excessively obese or morbidly obese category (BMI > 40kg.m-2), 19% had diabetes compared to 11% among those in the healthy weight category, and 19/40 or approximately 50% of theseexcessively obese cases had comorbid hypertension histories (p < 0.01) and the mode for numbers of comorbid diseases was 2. Among the 35 cases who were categorized as being underweight, 5 or 14% had cardiovascular disease, 2 or approximately 6% had high blood pressure, and none had a diabetes or depression diagnosis and the mode for numbers of comorbid diseases was 1(Tables 1 and 2).

Variable          

Entire Cohort                                     

N=997

Age (years), mean ± SD

65.5 ± 12.98, range 23-94

Age range, (n,%)

<65 yrs
>65 yrs


391(39.2)
599(60)

Sex

Female
Male


568(57)
424 (48)

BMI (kg.m-2), mean ± SD

27.6±5.7, range 15-68

Type of Surgery, (n,%)
Unilateral surgery
Bilateral Surgery               

Revision Surgery
Complications


770(77.2)
54(5.4)
122(12.2)
48(4.8)
 

Table 1.Characteristics of cohort of hip osteoarthritis patients requiring primary or secondary surgery (n=997)

BMI=body mass index

BMI Category

Underwt

Normal

Overweight

Obesity

I

II

III

Variable

< 20

20-24.9     

25-29.9

30-35      

36-39

40+

Number of patients (n,%)

35(3.5)

294(29.5)

382(38.3)

194(19.5) 

68(8.8)    

40(4.0)

Mean BMI kg.m-2

18.8 ± 3.9     

22.3 ±1.8    

26.9+1.6   

31.4+1.6  

36.3+1.3  

44+5.7

Number with Diabetes

0

4

21

9

4

9

Number with CVD

5

62

90

35

15

10

HBP

2

71

136

68

35

19

Depression

0

19

23

4

7

3

Revision surgery

1(0.8)         

43(35.2)

44(36.1)

24(19.7)

7(5.7)

3(2.5)

Complications –within type   

-within wtcateg

1(2.1) 

6.3%                

9(18.8)

3.1%       

17(35.4)

4.5%

13(27.1)   

5.7%

4(8.3)

5.9%

4(8.3)

10%

Table 2. Depiction of various patient atributes across body mass categories showing distinct differences between underweight and morbidly obese sample on selected variables (N=997).

BMI-body mass index; CVD=cardiovascular disease; HBP=hypertension; Underwt-underweight

As outlined in Table 2,among thecohort of patients undergoing primary or secondary surgeries, slightly more cases were excessively obese than underweight, and those who were morbidly obese were more likely to be hospitalized forserious complications following prior hip surgery than those who were underweight, as well as those in any other weight category.Table 3 depicts the overall health status and functional ability and past history of 12 morbidly obese cases and shows that many had prior hip osteoarthritis or other joint problems, and multiple comorbid conditions, even though they were all deemed relatively young adults.Findings from thetwo superobese cases shown in Table 4are generally consistent in showing the increased risk of sub optimal outcomes in the short and long term among the severely obese hip osteoarthritis surgical candidate.Table 5 reveals consistent evidence that caution is advised when patients are morbidly obese and recommended for hip replacement surgery.

ID

Age

Gender

Comorbid status

BMI

>Ideal wt

# blocks

Prior Hx

1

62

F

HBP, MI, Hypothy

50

246

3

Yes

2

50

F

Hypothy, Depress, Asthma

40

188

2

No

3

65

F

HBP, MVP, Hypothy         

42

208

2

No

4

53

F

HBP, Asthma

43

208

0

Yes

5

64

F

Diabetes, Depress, Asthma

44

-

0

No

6

65

M

Atrial fib, Prediab

40

166

3

Yes

7

57

M

Prediab           

41

-

1

Yes

8

48

M

COPD, HBP

40

169

10

Yes

9

50

M

Diabetes, HBP

58

257

0

Yes

10

54

M

Diabetes, Atrial fib

40

166

0

Yes

11

51

M

HBP, Depress 

45

186

1

No

12

56

M

Nil

44

191

.25

No

Table 3. Table depicting extent of disability observed among selected relatively young morbidly obese adults with hip osteoarthritis undergoing primary or secondary surgeries

# blocks=number blocks able to walk prior to surgery; Atrial fib-atrial fibrillation; COPD=chronic obstructive airways disease; HBP=high blood pressure; Hypoth=hypothyroidism; Hx=history; Depress=depression; Prediab=prediabetes

Discussion

Although the relationship between overweight and hip joint osteoarthritis is not definitive, results of this present analysis suggest overweight, and especially being morbidly obese is an important element observed among cases with disabling hip osteoarthritis, especially younger cases. This subgroup is also at risk for severe complications such as infection.        

This is consistent with Changulani et al. [8] who found those in the morbidly obese range were almost 10 years younger on average than those in the normal weight category, and those with higher body weights were more likely to experience adverse surgical outcomes than those who were not. This also accords with Tai et al. [9] and with Guetner et al.[10]. As in Guetner et al.’sstudy, it appears younger adults, especially those who suffer from morbid obesity may be quite prone to developing hip joint osteoarthritis in both hips, as well as other disabling health conditions. They may also require early hip joint replacement surgery, while incurring an increased risk of poor surgical outcomes, and the onset of comorbid diseases that can prevent optimal outcomes.

While Grotle et al. [2] found no association between body mass and hip osteoarthritis,obesity, an independent predictor of disability [12-14] and pain [16,17], can undoubtedly place excess biomechanicalstress on the hip joint. It can also increase chances of adopting a sedentary lifestyle, and hencenot unsurprisingly, greater body weight and body mass index during early and middle adulthood[15].

Since being overweight could render individuals of any age subject to abnormal hip jointloading forces, hip joint destruction may beespecially exaggerated in the morbidly obeseindividual. Moreover, associated high rates ofpain, as well as joint destruction and posturalchanges inthose who are excessively obese can be expected to impact the pathogenesis of hipjointosteoarthritis both before and after surgery more profoundly than non-obese situations [18,19]. Alternately, the constellation of obesity, immobility and pain can independently raise therisk for hip joint osteoarthritis, and its disability [21-31].

Morbid obesity is an enormous health care problem, and should not be ignored as an important factor impacting the onset and rate of hip osteoarthritis disability and its severity, as implied in Table 4-where the relatively young hip surgery candidates had had many prior years of joint dysfunction, and very poor outcomes at five days post-surgery compared to standard outcomes for most uncomplicated procedures among healthy or normal weight subjects.Since ample research shows obesity is a preventable situation related to energy balance, the importance of food intake and nutrition, and restoring functional mobility cannot be overlooked in this regard, in our view, even if this was not the view of McAlden et al. [31].

ID

Gender Age      

BMI # Meds  

# Med Cond      

# Yrs Impaired

Post-op hosp status after 5 days

1

F             62

50          >3

3

21

Ambulates only with assistance

2

M            50

58          >3

2

15

Stood with walker-no walking

Table 4. Selected attributes of two hip osteoarthritis surgery cases classified as being super obese (BMI >50) exemplifying extent of disability despite being younger than 65 years of age

BMI=body mass index; #meds=number medications; #med cond=number medical conditions; # yrs impaired=number years impaired

Consequently, although patients with hip osteoarthritis may routinely receive physical therapy for limited periods before and after surgery, more emphasis on the role good nutrition can have on the joint, and on reducing inflammation, while reducing the ratio of fat to muscle should be stressed, along with possibly routinely extending the pre operative period as well as the intensity and duration of post operative therapy.

Helping to prevent excess obesity in the formative years, and ensuring those affected are monitored for any emerging pain and disability is recommended as well. Other possible recommendations for reducing the adverse results shown in Tables 4 and 5, are the possible inclusion of nutrition educators in the team treating the hip osteoarthritis patient, and the design of foods that reduce diabetic complications, as well as vascular complications. Helping this sub group to reduce any proclivity towards depression is also indicated. As well, apprising the morbidly obese hip osteoarthritis surgical candidate of the increased risk of poor surgical outcomes at the outset, and encouraging weight loss is recommended.

Authors

Study procedures and Sample

Results

Conclusion

Arsoyet al. [32]

The results of total hip arthroplasty in 42 primary total hip arthroplasties in super-obese patients (BMI ≥ 50) were reviewed.

Twenty-four of the THAshad at least one complication. At least one major complication occurred in 11 of

the THAs and at least one minor complication in 14 THAs

Caution should be used when

proceeding with primary total hip arthroplasty with a BMI greater than 50.

Chee et al. [5]

The authors analyzed outcomes of 55 consecutive total hip replacements performed on 53 morbidly obese patients with osteoarthritis with a matched group of 55 total hip replacements in 53 non-obese patients.

Survival at five years was 90.9% for morbidly obese and 100% for non-obese patients

Harris Hip and the Short-form 36 scores were significantly better in non-obese group (p < 0.001)

The morbidly obese patients had  higher complication rates, which included dislocation, superficial and deep infection

Morbidly obese patients should be advised to lose weight before undergoing total hip replacement, and counseled regarding the risk of complications.

Elson et al. [19]

This evaluation was performed to determine if morbid obesity

(BMI ≥35 kg/m(2)) is a contributing risk factor to cup malpositioning.

There was a significant correlation between morbid obesity with

respect to underanteversion; using multivariate analysis, there was a trend

toward a combined underanteversion/overabduction of the acetabular cup.

Of all variables considered, high BMI was the most significant risk factor leading to malpositioning.

Houdeket al. [6]

Studied the effect of morbid obesity as a risk factor for failure of two-stage revision total hip arthroplasty using medical records of 653 cases treated for periprosthetic joint infection over a 20 year period

Compared with nonobese cases, morbidly obese cases had higher re infection, revision, and reoperation rates,

Morbidly obese patients have increased risk of severe post-operative complications after revision total hip arthroplasty than nonobese patients

Jamesenet al. [22]

Examined one-year incidence of periprosthetic joint infections among 7181 primary hip and knee replacements.

The infection rate for those with normal body mass indices was 0.37$, while the rate for those who were morbidly obese was 4.66%

Morbid obesity increases the risk for periprosthetic infection following primary hip or knee replacement

Issaet al. [33]

Assessed the outcomes of primary total hip arthroplasty in super-obese patients compared to a cohort who had a normal body mass index.

The super-obese patients had significantly lower mean Harris hip scores (84 vs 91 points) and higher complication rate at

final follow-up.

Patients may benefit from a discussion with their orthopaedic surgeons to develop

realistic expectations from the outcomes of their arthroplasty procedure.

Pulido et al. [34]

Reviewed a database of 9245 patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty between January 2001 and April 2006

Prosthetic infections developed in 63 patients, and among the independent predictors was morbid obesity

Morbid obesity and other factors may predispose patients to periprosthetic joint infection

Puloset al. [35]

Retrospectively examined 309 consecutive revisions of total hip arthroplasty from 2005-2009, and compared subgroup with body mass index greater than 35 to those with body mass indices below 35

At 36 months, there was a higher rate of re-operation in the obese group, especially for infection

Patients should be aware of their increased risk for post-surgical complications after total hip arthroplasty if they are obese

Rajgopalet al. [37]

Examined the complications and outcomes of total

hip replacement (THR) in super-obese patients (body mass index (BMI) > 50

kg/m(2)) compared with class I obese (BMI 30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)) and normal-weight

patients (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), as defined by the World Health Organization.

Super-obese patients experienced significantly

longer hospital stays and higher rates of major complications and readmissions

than normal-weight and class I obese patients.

Despite improved function and satisfaction, morbidly obese group experience a significant

increase in length of hospital stay and major complication and readmission rates.

Schwarzkopf et al.[38]

Conducted a retrospective study to determine the difference in

outcomes among the super-obese

When categorized according to body mass index, the overall complication rate was higher for patients with BMI > 45

 Super-obese patients had an increased odds of developing

In hospital complications

Length of stay was increased by 13.8% for each 5-U

increase in BMI above 45

There is a n increased risk of incurring complications

among the super-obese, and this increases with BMIs

greater than 45

Table 5. Studies examining impact of morbid obesity on total hip replacement surgery outcomes

 

Conclusion

Having a high body mass appears more characteristic than not of individuals hospitalized for purposes of total hip replacement, revision surgery, or severe complications from prior surgery. Whether this is a consequence of the disease, rather than a cause or risk factor it is important to consider:

  1. A small percentage of end stage hip osteoarthritis cases are morbidly obese.
  2. Those with excessively high body mass indices are younger on average than those 65 years of age.
  3. Excessively obese cases with BMIs> 40 were more likely to have high rates of diabetes and blood pressure than those of normal weight.
  4. Being excessively obese is related to the presence of a severe surgical complication.

              

Hence despite the limitations ofthis cross-sectional study for pinpointing causation, thispresent overviewimplies efforts to minimizethe onset and progression of obesity across the lifespanmay prove highly beneficial,despite lack of consensus of a distinct correlation of these factors [25].Moreover, those who are excessively obese and undergo surgery might be counseled about their situation and encouraged to lose weight prior to this intervention. Careful rehabilitation that takes into account the presence of comorbid conditions, may foster better overall long-term results. Research to examine this sub-group as a separate issue will potentially yield important understandings that can be applied to harm reduction efforts, as well as reparative efforts.

References

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Editorial Information

Editor-in-Chief

Andy Goren
University of Rome "G.Marconi"

Article Type

Review Article

Publication history

Received date: December 28, 2015
Accepted date: January 20, 2016
Published date: January 23, 2016

Copyright

©2016 Marks R.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Citation

Marks R (2016) Hip osteoarthritis surgical profiles and morbid obesity: a case series and literature review. Clin Case Rep Rev 1: doi: 10.15761/CCRR.1000203

Corresponding author

Marks R

Department of Health and Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, Box 114, 525W, 120th Street, New York, NY 10027.

E-mail : rm226@columbia.edu

Variable          

Entire Cohort                                     

N=997

Age (years), mean ± SD

65.5 ± 12.98, range 23-94

Age range, (n,%)

<65 yrs
>65 yrs


391(39.2)
599(60)

Sex

Female
Male


568(57)
424 (48)

BMI (kg.m-2), mean ± SD

27.6±5.7, range 15-68

Type of Surgery, (n,%)
Unilateral surgery
Bilateral Surgery               

Revision Surgery
Complications


770(77.2)
54(5.4)
122(12.2)
48(4.8)
 

Table 1.Characteristics of cohort of hip osteoarthritis patients requiring primary or secondary surgery (n=997)

BMI=body mass index

BMI Category

Underwt

Normal

Overweight

Obesity

I

II

III

Variable

< 20

20-24.9     

25-29.9

30-35      

36-39

40+

Number of patients (n,%)

35(3.5)

294(29.5)

382(38.3)

194(19.5) 

68(8.8)    

40(4.0)

Mean BMI kg.m-2

18.8 ± 3.9     

22.3 ±1.8    

26.9+1.6   

31.4+1.6  

36.3+1.3  

44+5.7

Number with Diabetes

0

4

21

9

4

9

Number with CVD

5

62

90

35

15

10

HBP

2

71

136

68

35

19

Depression

0

19

23

4

7

3

Revision surgery

1(0.8)         

43(35.2)

44(36.1)

24(19.7)

7(5.7)

3(2.5)

Complications –within type   

-within wtcateg

1(2.1) 

6.3%                

9(18.8)

3.1%       

17(35.4)

4.5%

13(27.1)   

5.7%

4(8.3)

5.9%

4(8.3)

10%

Table 2. Depiction of various patient atributes across body mass categories showing distinct differences between underweight and morbidly obese sample on selected variables (N=997).

BMI-body mass index; CVD=cardiovascular disease; HBP=hypertension; Underwt-underweight

ID

Age

Gender

Comorbid status

BMI

>Ideal wt

# blocks

Prior Hx

1

62

F

HBP, MI, Hypothy

50

246

3

Yes

2

50

F

Hypothy, Depress, Asthma

40

188

2

No

3

65

F

HBP, MVP, Hypothy         

42

208

2

No

4

53

F

HBP, Asthma

43

208

0

Yes

5

64

F

Diabetes, Depress, Asthma

44

-

0

No

6

65

M

Atrial fib, Prediab

40

166

3

Yes

7

57

M

Prediab           

41

-

1

Yes

8

48

M

COPD, HBP

40

169

10

Yes

9

50

M

Diabetes, HBP

58

257

0

Yes

10

54

M

Diabetes, Atrial fib

40

166

0

Yes

11

51

M

HBP, Depress 

45

186

1

No

12

56

M

Nil

44

191

.25

No

Table 3. Table depicting extent of disability observed among selected relatively young morbidly obese adults with hip osteoarthritis undergoing primary or secondary surgeries

# blocks=number blocks able to walk prior to surgery; Atrial fib-atrial fibrillation; COPD=chronic obstructive airways disease; HBP=high blood pressure; Hypoth=hypothyroidism; Hx=history; Depress=depression; Prediab=prediabetes

ID

Gender Age      

BMI # Meds  

# Med Cond      

# Yrs Impaired

Post-op hosp status after 5 days

1

F             62

50          >3

3

21

Ambulates only with assistance

2

M            50

58          >3

2

15

Stood with walker-no walking

Table 4. Selected attributes of two hip osteoarthritis surgery cases classified as being super obese (BMI >50) exemplifying extent of disability despite being younger than 65 years of age

BMI=body mass index; #meds=number medications; #med cond=number medical conditions; # yrs impaired=number years impaired

Authors

Study procedures and Sample

Results

Conclusion

Arsoyet al. [32]

The results of total hip arthroplasty in 42 primary total hip arthroplasties in super-obese patients (BMI ≥ 50) were reviewed.

Twenty-four of the THAshad at least one complication. At least one major complication occurred in 11 of

the THAs and at least one minor complication in 14 THAs

Caution should be used when

proceeding with primary total hip arthroplasty with a BMI greater than 50.

Chee et al. [5]

The authors analyzed outcomes of 55 consecutive total hip replacements performed on 53 morbidly obese patients with osteoarthritis with a matched group of 55 total hip replacements in 53 non-obese patients.

Survival at five years was 90.9% for morbidly obese and 100% for non-obese patients

Harris Hip and the Short-form 36 scores were significantly better in non-obese group (p < 0.001)

The morbidly obese patients had  higher complication rates, which included dislocation, superficial and deep infection

Morbidly obese patients should be advised to lose weight before undergoing total hip replacement, and counseled regarding the risk of complications.

Elson et al. [19]

This evaluation was performed to determine if morbid obesity

(BMI ≥35 kg/m(2)) is a contributing risk factor to cup malpositioning.

There was a significant correlation between morbid obesity with

respect to underanteversion; using multivariate analysis, there was a trend

toward a combined underanteversion/overabduction of the acetabular cup.

Of all variables considered, high BMI was the most significant risk factor leading to malpositioning.

Houdeket al. [6]

Studied the effect of morbid obesity as a risk factor for failure of two-stage revision total hip arthroplasty using medical records of 653 cases treated for periprosthetic joint infection over a 20 year period

Compared with nonobese cases, morbidly obese cases had higher re infection, revision, and reoperation rates,

Morbidly obese patients have increased risk of severe post-operative complications after revision total hip arthroplasty than nonobese patients

Jamesenet al. [22]

Examined one-year incidence of periprosthetic joint infections among 7181 primary hip and knee replacements.

The infection rate for those with normal body mass indices was 0.37$, while the rate for those who were morbidly obese was 4.66%

Morbid obesity increases the risk for periprosthetic infection following primary hip or knee replacement

Issaet al. [33]

Assessed the outcomes of primary total hip arthroplasty in super-obese patients compared to a cohort who had a normal body mass index.

The super-obese patients had significantly lower mean Harris hip scores (84 vs 91 points) and higher complication rate at

final follow-up.

Patients may benefit from a discussion with their orthopaedic surgeons to develop

realistic expectations from the outcomes of their arthroplasty procedure.

Pulido et al. [34]

Reviewed a database of 9245 patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty between January 2001 and April 2006

Prosthetic infections developed in 63 patients, and among the independent predictors was morbid obesity

Morbid obesity and other factors may predispose patients to periprosthetic joint infection

Puloset al. [35]

Retrospectively examined 309 consecutive revisions of total hip arthroplasty from 2005-2009, and compared subgroup with body mass index greater than 35 to those with body mass indices below 35

At 36 months, there was a higher rate of re-operation in the obese group, especially for infection

Patients should be aware of their increased risk for post-surgical complications after total hip arthroplasty if they are obese

Rajgopalet al. [37]

Examined the complications and outcomes of total

hip replacement (THR) in super-obese patients (body mass index (BMI) > 50

kg/m(2)) compared with class I obese (BMI 30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)) and normal-weight

patients (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), as defined by the World Health Organization.

Super-obese patients experienced significantly

longer hospital stays and higher rates of major complications and readmissions

than normal-weight and class I obese patients.

Despite improved function and satisfaction, morbidly obese group experience a significant

increase in length of hospital stay and major complication and readmission rates.

Schwarzkopf et al.[38]

Conducted a retrospective study to determine the difference in

outcomes among the super-obese

When categorized according to body mass index, the overall complication rate was higher for patients with BMI > 45

 Super-obese patients had an increased odds of developing

In hospital complications

Length of stay was increased by 13.8% for each 5-U

increase in BMI above 45

There is a n increased risk of incurring complications

among the super-obese, and this increases with BMIs

greater than 45

Table 5. Studies examining impact of morbid obesity on total hip replacement surgery outcomes