In Issues 1-4 of Volume 8, two original Research Articles and five Reviews, in addition to five Case Reports and one Commentary, have been published.
A subgroup of breast cancer lacking the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as HER2 [i.e. triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)] is usually aggressive in clinical course and is often resistant to pharmacotherapy with not only anti-hormones but also chemotherapeutic agents. Li et al.  assessed the impact of compound cantharis, a Chinese herb, on the efficacy of docetaxel in TNBC and its underlying mechanisms. In docetaxel-resistant TNBC sublines established, compound cantharis restored the cytotoxic effect of docetaxel. The induction of anti-tumor activity of docetaxel by compound cantharis was then confirmed in a mouse xenograft model. In addition, compound cantharis was found to inhibit autophagy and down-regulate the expression of related proteins including LC3 and Beclin-1. These findings suggest that compound cantharis could enhance sensitivity to docetaxel treatment in TNBC.
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) has been the main cause of bacterial infection in newborns, while its colonization in the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts is generally asymptomatic in pregnant women. Aboutorabi et al.  characterized GBS isolated from vaginal swabs, midstream urines, and rectal swabs in 90 participants at 35-37 weeks of gestation at a single institution in Iran. Overall, GBS was detected in 17.6% of the patients. Of 10 serotypes, Ia (25%; from rectum), Ib (50%; from urine and vagina), and II (25%; from vagina) were identified, using PCR-based methods. Importantly, these isolates were found to be often resistant to all the antibiotics examined, including penicillin (75%), ampicillin (43.75%), chloramphenicol (75%), clindamycin (75%), cefepime (75%), ceftriaxone (56.25%), erythromycin (75%), vancomycin (50%), tetracycline (75%), and cefotaxime (100%). Moreover, detection of virulence factors, such as CyIE, bca, and lmb, implied the usefulness of GBS vaccines against these.
It has been documented that viruses play a critical role in the development of a variety of human malignancies. Tenorio et al.  reviewed the impact of such oncogenic viruses, including human T-cell lymphotropic virus, human papillomavirus (HPV), mouse/human mammary tumor virus, human endogenous retrovirus (HERV), and hepatitis C virus. Interestingly, serological survey, using PCR-based assays, revealed that some of their patients with head and neck cancer were positive for HPV (1 of 38) and HERV-K (31 of 35).
Other review articles (i.e. Mini-Reviews) summarized: 1) the role of probiotics and prebiotics in preventing colorectal carcinogenesis ; 2) the potential application of phytotherapy against cancer ; 3) the efficacy of evinacumab, an anti-ANGPTL3 monoclonal antibody, against homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia ; and 4) the potential role of exosomes, particularly as a therapeutic target, in human malignancies .
- Li H, Liu H, Chen Y, Li J, Liu W, et al. (2021) Compound cantharis revers chemotherapy resistance of TNBC via miR-520d/beclin-1 signal axis. Integr Cancer Sci Ther 8: 1000354.
- Aboutorabi SSHS, Rasooli Z, Pakniat H, Baloo F (2021) Molecular characterization of prevalence, serotypes, virulence factors, and antibiotics resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in a maternity hospital, Iran. Integr Cancer Sci Ther 8: 1000356.
- Tenorio BG, Bretas IS, Bernardes JPRA, Mansour MNJ, Napoleão SMS, et al. (2021) Putative oncogenic viruses: Some data on Brazilian subjects. Integr Cancer Sci Ther 8: 1000358.
- Ohara T (2021) Prospects for colorectal cancer prevention targeting intestinal microbiome. Integr Cancer Sci Ther 8: 1000351.
- Sannia A (2021) Phytotherapy and oncology. A short review. Integr Cancer Sci Ther 8: 1000353.
- Surma S, Romanczyk M, Filipiak KJ (2021) Evinacumab – A new drug in the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. Integr Cancer Sci Ther 8: 1000355.
- Retamales-Ortega R, Orostica ML (2021) Exosomes as therapy for cancer. Integr Cancer Sci Ther 8: 1000357.