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Biomaterials and Tissue Technology (BTT)

Online ISSN: 2398-970X

Traian Chirila (Founding Editor in Chief)

Queensland Eye Institute

Queensland University of Technology

University of Queensland

University of Western Australia

Biomaterials and Tissue Technology (BTT) is an international peer-reviewed journal that covers all aspects of biomaterials, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It publishes studies on all types of biomaterials, including synthetic polymers and their composites, ceramics, glass, minerals, metals, wood, as well as biopolymers (e.g. collagen, chitosan, alginate etc.) and natural tissues, regarding topics such as synthesis, characterization, properties and surface modification; stability/degradation in physiologic media; cell/tissue-biomaterial interactions; applications as carriers in drug delivery systems, as implantable devices, and as scaffolds in tissue engineering; nano-structured biomaterials; and biomimetics. Other applications can include bioimaging, micro/nanoelectromechanical systems for biomedical applications (bioMEMS/bioNEMS), biosensors, biofabrication, biotribology and artificial organs.

Tissue technology is an emerging field that offers hope to the people with compromised tissue function.
It focuses on the creation of biological substitutes containing viable and functioning cells for the restoration, maintenance and improvement of tissue function. It is a multidisciplinary field that covers not only aspects pertaining to tissue engineering but also to platform technologies for developing tissue/biomaterial products that incorporate biomaterial scaffolds, genetically-engineered cells or progenitor/stem cells, and systems for delivery of bioactive agents, such as biosignaling molecules. Considering that the autografts are still the gold standard and that our body is complex and sophisticated bioreactor, it can be said that tissue technology is ultimately biomimetic.

It is the aim of this journal to provide a peer-reviewed forum for the publication of original research reports, authoritative reviews, and opinion papers dealing with important issues facing the use of biomaterials in clinical practice. Contributions do not need to be novel, as confirmatory and replication studies will be also considered, however they must present new findings, which can include reporting negative findings.

Case reports are published only if related to the use of biomaterials, implantable devices, and tissue regeneration procedures.

BTT welcomes direct submissions from authors: Attach your word file with e- mail and send it to

Please, follow the Instructions for Authors. In the cover letter add the name and e-mail address of 5 proposed reviewers (we can choose them or not).

Copyright is retained by the authors and articles can be freely used and distributed by others. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published by BTT, is properly cited.

Prof Traian Chirila

Professor Traian Chirila holds a BEng in polymer technology and a PhD in organic chemistry. In 1986 he joined Lions Eye Institute in Perth, Australia, as a Senior Scientist where he established a department for research and development of polymeric biomaterials for ophthalmology.

In 2005, he joined the newly founded Queensland Eye Institute (QEI) in Brisbane, Australia, where he was offered a position of Senior Scientist to continue his research and to establish a department of ophthalmic biomaterials and tissue engineering.

Currently, he is the Chief Scientist of QEI, and also holds three adjunct/honorary professorships at the Queensland University of Technology and the University of Queensland (in the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, and in the Faculty of Medicine), and a Honorary Research Fellowship at the University of Western Australia. He is a member of Australasian Society for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, and of American Chemical Society, and was made a Fellow of Royal Australian Chemical Institute (RACI) in 1992. He received the RACI Polymer Division Citation in 1993 and the RACI Applied Research Medal in 1999. In 2014 he was awarded the SRB Excellence Award by the Romanian Society for Biomaterials. In 2015 he was awarded the title of Doctor Honoris Causa by the University “Politehnica” of Timisoara, Romania, his Alma Mater. In 2016 he was made by invitation a fellow of the Royal Chemical Society (UK).

Professor Chirila’s main research interests include polymer science, hydrogels, ophthalmic biomaterials, tissue engineering, supramolecular polymers, and sustained drug release. His activity and publications contributed seminally to the field of biomaterials and tissue engineering. He is the inventor of the AlphaCor™ artificial cornea and the AlphaSphere™ orbital implant. His group at QEI was the first to use silk proteins as biomaterials in ophthalmology.

Traian’s activity has resulted to date in about 190 journal articles and book chapters, about the same number of conference presentations, and is a named inventor on 13 patents. He edited 2 books, 2 journal special issues, and is on the editorial boards of 11 journals. Professor Chirila presented invited lectures in China, USA, Japan, Romania, Italy, France, Switzerland, Korea, Germany and The Netherlands. 

Editorial Board

Brian J Tighe

Head of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry
Aston University Birmingham

Che J Connon

Professor of Tissue Engineering
Institute of Genetic Medicine
Newcastle University
Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Chih-Chang Chu

Biomedical Engineering and Fiber Science Program
Cornell University
New York

Dale S Feldman

Department of Engineering
University of Alabama Birmingham

Eben Alsberg

Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopaedic Surgery
Case Western Reserve Unversity

Hossein Saidpour

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Birmingham City University

Iulian Antoniac

Materials Science & Engineering
University Politehnica of Bucharest

Jonathan Lakey

Biomedical Engineering
University of California, Irvine

Kinda Khalaf

Associate Professor
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Khalifa University
Abu Dhabi

Lawrence Gettleman

Prosthodontics & Biomaterials
School of Dentistry
University of Louisville

Liliana Verestiuc

Faculty of Medical Bioengineering
Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Iasi, Romania

Meital Zilberman

Department of Biomedical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Tel Aviv University

Miguel Gonzalez

Schepens Eye Research Institute and
Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary
Harvard University

Min Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Murugan Ramalingam

Associate Professor
Department of Dental Surgery
Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
University of Strasbourg (UdS)

Nicholas P Ziats

Professor of Pathology
Biomedical Engineering and Anatomy
Case Western Reserve University

Prasanna Krishnamurthy

Associate Professor
Department of Biomedical Engineering
University of Alabama Birmingham

Quan Yuan

Senior Research Scientist
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering
Purdue University

Robert M Pilliar

Professor Emeritus
University of Toronto

Roche C. de Guzman

Assistant Professor
Department of Engineering
Hofstra University
Hempstead New York

Santanu Dhara

Associate Professor
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

Seda Kizilel

Associate Professor
College of Engineering
Kos University
Istambul, Turkey

Shiwei Zhou

Senior Lecturer
Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering RMIT University

Shmuel Einav

Department of Biomedical Engineering
Tel Aviv & Stony Brook Universities

Shuko Suzuki

Senior Scientist
Queensland Eye Institute, Brisbane

Thomas Vinoy

Assistant Professor
School of Engineering
University of Alabama Birmingham

Tim Dargaville

Associate Professor
Science & Engineering Faculty
Queensland University of Technology
Brisbane, Australia

Tina Chowdhury

Senior Lecturer in Regenerative Medicine
Institute of Bioengineering
Queen Mary University of London

T S Sampath Kumar

Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Chennai, India

Vinay V Abhyankar

Group Leader
Biological Microsystems
UT Arlington Research Institute
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Vincenzo Guarino

Research Scientist
Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB)
National Research Council of Italy
Naples, Italy

Vladimir Komlev

Leading Scientist
A. A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science
Russian Academy of Science
Moscow, Russia

Early View

Volume 1, Issue 1

The effect of gelling ion on alginate microcapsule size and encapsulated islet efficacy for treating type 1 diabetes

Ariel Dalisay Michael Alexander Grace Kummerfeld Antonio Flores Ka-Hei Chan Rahul Krishnan Jonathan RT Lakey

Research Article-Biomaterials and Tissue Technology (BTT)

October 12, 2016

Heparin-like polyelectrolyte multilayer coatings based on fungal sulfated chitosan decrease platelet adhesion due to the increased hydration and reduced stiffness

Garry Kerch Mickael Chausson Sandrine Gautier Remo Merijs Meri Janis Zicans Eriks Jakobsons Michael Joner

Short Communication-Biomaterials and Tissue Technology (BTT)

January 17, 2017

Enzymatic crosslinking of Bombyx mori silk fibroin biomaterials: An investigation of the gel point by dynamic rheology

Traian V. Chirila Shuko Suzuki Ophélie Delcroix

Research Article-Biomaterials and Tissue Technology (BTT)

January 20, 2017

Porous poly (2-oxazoline) scaffolds for developing 3D primary human tissue culture

David J. van der Heide Bart Verbraeken Richard Hoogenboom Tim R. Dargaville Danica K. Hickey

Research Article-Biomaterials and Tissue Technology (BTT)

January 23, 2017

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Instructions for Author's

These instructions are based on the CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 8th Edition, Chicago University Press, Chicago, 2014 (ISBN-13: 978-0-226-11649-5), henceforth “the CSE Manual”. As this comprehensive book describes a variety of models for the preparation of manuscripts, we have selected a particular set of recommendations that should be strictly followed for publication in our journal.

Required elements of the submitted material

Cover letter

The cover letter must be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief and must provide precise information regarding the title of the manuscript, list of authors (in the same order like on the title page of the manuscript), statements on the originality and novelty of work, brief comments on the topic and its relevance, comments on why the manuscript is a worthy contribution to the literature, and comments on why our journal is the preferred vehicle for the dissemination of the article. We encourage the inclusion of the names and e-mail addresses of at least 3 potential reviewers (which we may or may not choose to contact).

Please do not include in the cover letter requests to waive article processing fees. Such opportunity will be available only after the acceptance of the manuscript.

The following template, or elements of it, can be used for composing a cover letter. However, the authors may add any other relevant details they feel are necessary. A cover letter should not be longer than 2 pages.



The Editor-in-Chief


Re: Manuscript titled “…….”.

Dear Editor,

The manuscript titled “…..”, having as authors the following: …, …, …, is being submitted for possible publication in Biomaterials and Tissue Technology. All authors’ affiliations are detailed on the title page.

This manuscript presents original work, not previously published in any form or language by any of the authors, and is not considered for, submitted to, or accepted by other journal. If accepted at Biomaterials and Tissue Technology, the article or parts of it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in print or electronically, in English or any language, without the written consent of the copyright holder.

The manuscript contains … figure(s) and … table(s). All authors have seen the final version of this manuscript, approved its submission in the present form, and authorized the corresponding author (…..) to act as an agent on their behalf.

The study addresses the topic of …. The work reported here aims at …, and is related to our previous publications …., …. .

We believe that Biomaterials and Tissue Technology is a suitable professional platform to make our findings known to those involved in the study of … .

Potential peer reviewers:




Please direct any correspondence regarding the processing of this manuscript to the corresponding author indicated on the title page and also mentioned below.

Yours sincerely,

….. (Corresponding Author)

e-mail address:


The journal does not have restrictions regarding the manuscript length, or the number of words, figures, or tables. However, we encourage a concise writing style.

A separate Supporting Information section outside the body of the manuscript is acceptable, with no length limitations. For more details and instructions about the supplemental material and data please visit:

We strongly recommend the use of correct English when writing the manuscript. To this aim, we encourage the use of professional editing if the authors feel that the manuscript would benefit from it.

Recommended fonts include commonly used fonts such as Times New Roman, Arial or Cambria, with a font size of 12. The line spacing should be at least 1.5 lines.

The main types of articles accepted for publication in our journal include original research reports and review articles. The journal also publishes editorials, written by Editors or Guest-Editors, and leading opinion papers, subject to an invitation from the Editorial Office.

Scientific notation is mandatory in our journal with regard to numbers and units of measure, and some basic requirements are detailed below.

  • Very large or very small numbers must be expressed in powers of 10.


3.2 × 104  not  32,000

5 × 107  not  50,000,000

8 × 10–5  not  0.00008

  • Physical and chemical quantities must be expressed in the units according to the Système International d’Unités (the International System of Units, abbreviated SI), as developed and maintained by the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM).

It is mandatory that the number must be separated from the alphabetic symbol of a unit by a single space.


50 s  not  50s

10 mm not 10mm

37 °C  not 37°C

The only exceptions form the rule above include the degree symbol expressing angles (e.g. “ … an angle of 45° … ”) or geographic longitude/latitude, and the percentage symbol (e.g. “50%”).

  • A derived unit of measure that is the product of more SI units must be expressed using the centered dot (·), known also as “raised period” or “half-high dot”, which has the Unicode (hex) code 00B7.

The centered dot shall not be replaced with a single space only. The absence of space between symbols is not permitted either. Also, there should be no spaces on either side of the centered dot.


m–1·kg·s–2  not  m–1 kg s–2 or m–1kgs–2

A·s not  A s or As

Pa·s not  Pa s or Pas

On the contrary, when a derived unit must be spelt out in the text, the words must be separated by a single space, not by a centered dot or a hyphen.


ampere second not ampere·second or ampere-second

  • To express a derived unit generated by division, either a slash (/) or a negative exponent is allowed.


m2/s2  or  m2·s–2

  • We discourage the use of non-SI units. However, there is a small number of such units that are permitted in our journal, including: minute (min), hour (h), day (d), liter (L), electron volt (eV), millimeter of mercury (mm Hg, or torr), ångström (Å), roentgen (R).

A detailed treatment of scientific writing with regard to numbers and units can be found in the CSE Manual, p. 157–176.

Title page

The title page must contain, in order, the following elements, which can be extended on a second page if the space is insufficient.

Title of article

The title of a manuscript must be concise and as informative as possible. The length of a title should be limited to maximum 30 words. No capitalization of words should be used within the title except for the first word and for the words that must be capitalized (e.g. proper nouns, acronyms). The title should be typed in boldface letters with a font size of 16.

The title should be descriptive and include terms recognizable in dictionaries, which should be also straightforwardly indexable or retrievable. Hyperbolic rhetoric or excessive erudition should be avoided in a title.

Author byline

All authors’ names must be included, in the sequence decided by them. A name segment must consist of:

  1. First name in full;
  2. Initial (s) of middle name(s) (if used);
  3. Surname in full

Each name is to be followed by a superscripted number (1, 2, etc.) that identifies the affiliation of the author. One (or more) author(s) should be designated (with a superscripted asterisk) as the corresponding author(s), and their details (postal address, telephone number, and e-mail address) must be included in the first footline element of the title page under the heading “Correspondence to:…”.

Author affiliation

The institution(s) where the authors carried out the work, where they are currently employed, and where they have adjunct/honorary positions must be listed, each preceded by a superscripted number matching those attached to each author’s name. The details of the institutions must include the name, city, state/province, postal code, and country. Street address is optional. No changes can be made to affiliations after the manuscript was accepted.

No academic degrees, titles, and honors shall be inserted after the authors’ names.


An abstract must be included under the heading “Abstract”, next to the authors’ affiliations list and prior to the text. It should be no longer than 300 words. The abstract must be written in the past tense of the verbs.

For original research articles, the abstract must summarize the work reported and its results. It has to contain brief statements on the purpose of research, hypotheses tested, methodology, results, and conclusions. The abstract should be informative and understandable upon itself, and must reflect accurately the contents of the article.

For review articles, the abstract must describe the objective of the review, the reasoning behind the authors’ selection of literature, the search methodology, the outcomes of the review and its implications for further progress in the field reviewed.

Abbreviations within an abstract should be avoided, but if they are necessary, the full wording shall be also provided. No citations shall be included in an abstract.

Key words

A list of 5 to 7 terms should be provided as key words in the second footline element of the title page. They must characterize appropriately the main topic of the article and must be adequate for indexing and abstracting purposes.


If there is a large number of abbreviations and acronyms throughout the text, a list should be included as a footline element following the “Key words” footline. In the main text, however, the full wording of the term should precede the abbreviations or acronyms at their first mentioning. The symbols for the units of measure shall be neither listed as abbreviations, nor explained.


The text of an original research article must contain the following sections, each under a first-level subheading, which shall not be numbered in the text:

  • Introduction
  • Materials and methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion(s)
  • Acknowledgements
  • Compliance with ethical standards
  • Conflict of interest

Instead of “Results”, the alternative subheading “Results and discussion” is also acceptable, in which case there is no need for a separate subheading “Discussion”.

If necessary for enhanced clarity, any section may be further divided into subsections with appropriate additional subheadings created by the authors.

The subheadings should be flush with left edge and spaced both beneath the preceding line and above the following line. The subheadings should follow the typographic hierarchy indicated below for four levels of subheadings.

Materials and methods                      boldface, size 14 (level I)

Methods                                                        boldface, size 12 (level II)

Preparation of polymers                            boldface, italic, size 12 (level III)

Structural characterization of gels              italic, size 12 (level IV)

In the review articles, the subheadings are basically at the authors’ desire, as they must be created specifically to define the subtopics considered sequentially. Conceptually, if the description of methods to search literature and their outcomes is extensive, a review article can meet the same intellectual standard as a research article.


The Introduction section must provide the background that puts the manuscript into context and allows the readers to understand the aim and significance of the work, even if they are not fully familiar with the topic. It should include a definition of the problem(s), a brief review of the key literature, and comments on associated controversial issues, if any. It should end with a statement of what is being reported in the article.

An introduction should be as short as possible. An extensive discussion of the relevant history of the problem investigated should be included in the Discussion section, rather than in the Introduction. As a result, an introduction shall not occupy more than 25% of the text (excluding the references list).

Materials and methods

This section must disclose sufficient information enabling the duplication in other laboratories of the experiments described in the article. It should detail the design of the study, materials and their suppliers, laboratory equipment used and its suppliers, experiments carried out, and aspects of data analysis. If previously published methods were employed, there is no need for meticulous descriptions as the appropriate literature may be cited.

Thorough details of new protocols established by the authors should preferably be included in the Supporting Information section.


The results should be presented in great detail, making also use of figures (graphs, illustrations) and tables. Additional subsections with suitable subheadings may be inserted if necessary.

Numerical data included in a table shall not be repeated in the text or in a graph, and vice versa. All quantitative data presented should be statistically processed where feasible.


This section must present the significance of the main findings, with emphasis on the importance of the study and on the differences between the authors’ research and the previously reported research on the same topic. The impact of the study on the current knowledge shall also be emphasized, but the authors must exercise caution when they are advancing new hypotheses.

Do not repeat details already given in the Introduction and Results sections. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been actually completed.


This section must be written concisely and in the present tense of the verbs. It must present nothing else but the conclusions drawn by the authors at the end of their study. Do not summarize what was done in the study, such repeating the content of the Abstract. Do not describe results.


This section must acknowledge primarily those who contributed to various aspects of the study, but did not meet the criteria for authorship. Funding support should be also included here, providing details regarding the source of funds, the relevant grant or contract numbers where possible, and the awards received by any of the authors. This section can also include notices of permission to cite unpublished work.

Compliance with ethical standards

This section refers to the use of experimental animals in authorized animal houses, and of human tissue from tissue banks. The sources and the details of the official approval documents should be provided. If human clinical trials were associated with the study, all relevant documentation shall be identified by official code names or/and numbers.

If the study has not involved any of the above, this section should be completed as “Not applicable”.

Conflict of interest

This section should disclose any conflictual situations that may bias the authors’ work. All competing interests should be listed. Financial competing interests include authors’ association with funding sources, financial advantages for the authors from organizations that may gain financially from the study, stock/shares held by any author in such organizations, and patenting issues. Non-financial competing interests refer to political, personal, religious, ideological or any other interests that might bias the authors’ work. The authors are encouraged to examine, if necessary, the details regarding the competing interests at

If there is no conflict of interest, the following text is acceptable:

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest of a scientific or commercial nature. The authors have no relevant affiliations to, or financial support from any organization that may have a financial interest in the subject matter.


Figures (drawings, graphs, schemes, photographs, micrographs) should be of professional quality. They must be mentioned in the text as Figure 1, Figure 2 etc. and included in the main file. An exaggerated number of figures should be avoided.

The following file formats are accepted for the figures submitted to our journal: JPEG, PNG, TIFF, BMP, GIF, PPT.

The legends for figures should be provided on a separate sheet of paper, and begin with the number of figure in boldface, e.g. Figure 1, followed by full stop; the rest of text should not be boldfaced.

If a figure has been published elsewhere, the author must provide a written permission obtained from the copyright owner.

For more details regarding the preparation of figures please visit:


There is no limit to the number of tables in a manuscript submitted to our journal. Tables must be submitted on separate sheets of paper included in the main file. Each table must headed by a title, which must placed outside the table frame. Each table must be numbered, so each title must start with the word “Table” followed by a number and full stop, all in boldface (e.g. Table 2.). Do not use table parts (e.g. Table 1a, Table 1b). If there is only one table in the entire manuscript, that particular table should not be numbered.

If footnotes are necessary for additional explanations, use within the table superscript lowcase letters (a, b etc.) to direct to the related footnotes that are typed outside the table frame, at the bottom. Do not use symbols instead of letters.

For more details regarding the preparation of tables please visit:

Supplemental Table

For more details and instructions about the supplemental material and data please visit:


The system for referencing in our journal is the CITATIONSEQUENCE system, which requires a specific style for editing both in-text and end text references.

In-text references

In this system, numbers are used within the text to refer to the end text references. The in-text references are numbered, and the end references are ordered within the list in the sequence in which these numbers appear in the text. The in-text reference numbers must be placed within square brackets, […], located immediately after a word with a space between them. No punctuation mark should be present between the word and the bracketed reference number. If there are only two consecutive numbers, or a set of numbers that are not in continuous sequence, they should be separated by a comma with no space. For more than two numbers in a continuous sequence, the first and last numbers should be connected with an en-dash (or a hyphen, if preferred). The examples below, taken from actual articles, are self-explanatory for this style.


… and other biomedical applications [1].

… other cell types have been grown on fibroin [20,22].

… with respect to reconstructing musculoskeletal and vascular tissue [2–8], a small number of …

… after childhood [10]; most …

End text references

Editing of the end text references in the citation-sequence system is described below through examples for various types of publications. The citations in the list of references at the end of the manuscript should be numbered in the order they appeared in the text.


The general format for citation of journal articles is as follows:

Author(s). Articol title. Journal title. Year; volume (issue): page interval.

The issue number is optional, and will not be included in our examples. If the author decides to insert issue numbers, this must be done in all references except for journals that do not have issue numbers.

Articles in some journals (usually the open access type) have volume number but no pagination (and sometimes no issue number). Each article is allocated a number, and this is the only available element. In such cases, the volume and article number must be cited, followed by DOI details. Optionally, the total number of pages can be added after the article number within round brackets.  If a journal has no volume and/or issue numbers, the month should be included instead, and placed after the year.


Gumbiner BM. Cell adhesion: the molecular basis of tissue architecture and morphogenesis. Cell. 1996; 84:345–357.

Ruoslahti E. RGD and other recognition sequences for integrins. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1996; 12:697–715.

Lydon MJ, Minett TW, Tighe BJ. Cellular interactions with synthetic polymer surface in culture. Biomaterials. 1985; 6:396–402.

Ahearne M. Introduction to cell-hydrogel mechanosensing. Interface Focus. 2014; 4:20130038. DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2013.0038.

Chirila TV, Suzuki S, Bray LJ, Barnett NL, Harkin DG. Evaluation of silk sericin as a biomaterial: in vitro growth of human corneal limbal epithelial cells on Bombyx mori sericin membranes. Prog Biomater. 2013; 2:14 (10 pages). DOI: 10.1186/2194-0517-2-14.

Hogerheyde TA, Suzuki S, Stephenson SA, Richardson NA, Chirila TV, Harkin DG, Bray LJ. Assessment of freestanding membranes prepared from Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin as a potential vehicle for human corneal epithelial cell transplantation. Biomed Mater. 2014; 9:025016 (9 pages). DOI: 10.1088/1748-6041/9/2/025016.

Sampat P. Groundwater shock: the polluting of the world’s major freshwater stores. World Watch. 2000 Jan–Feb:10–22.

The journal title must be in italic letters. Note that the abbreviated words in the journal title shall not be followed by full stops, however a full stop must be placed after the last word in the journal title, whether an abbreviated word or not.

Do not insert “and” before the last author; a comma is both necessary and sufficient. When there are 2 to 10 authors, all of them must be listed. If more than 10 authors, the first 10 authors should be listed followed by a comma and “et al.”.

When an organization serves as an author, its full name shall take the place as the author. If both the name of the author and the name of organization appear on the title page of an article, use only the name of the author. If an article does not have any identifiable author, begin the reference with the title. The use of “anonymous” or “anon.” is not permitted.

For articles in a language different from English, provide a translation of the title within square brackets, and specify the language of the original article at the end of the citation. The titles in character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) do not have to be romanized (i.e. rendered into Latin letters), but directly translated. For titles in German language, follow the conventions regarding word capitalization. The examples below, taken from the CSE Manual, illustrate such situations.


Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Claudy A. Tumeurs cutanées chez les greffes d’organe [Cutaneous tumors in organ transplant recipients]. Presse Med. 2002; 31:1895–1903. French.

Jin XH, Huang WQ. [Research progress in immune regulation of gonadorelin]. Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan. 200; 31:169–172. Chinese.

Gorge G, Kunz T, Kirstein M. Die nicht-chirurgische Therapie des iatrogenen Aneurysma spurium [Non-surgical therapy of iatrogenic false aneurysm]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2003; 128:36–40. German.

The titles of journals must be abbreviated according to current standards. If in doubt, the authors should consult various sources available. A comprehensive list of such sources has been provided in the CSE Manual, p. 643, Appendix 29.1.

Volumes with supplements or parts should be edited as indicated in the examples below (where the number “25” was chosen as an example for the volume number).


25 Suppl    25 Suppl 2    25(Pt 1)    25(Pt 3 Suppl)    25 Suppl 2 Pt 1  

In many journals, an article may contain a header such as “research article”, “original research”, “review”, “short communication”, “news”, “case report”, “case study”, “commentary” etc. Such headers are not to be included in the title of the article unless they are integral part of the title as indicated in the table of contents of the journal. In rare occurrences, an article does not appear to have any discernible title; in this case, the author(s) should create a title from the first few words of the text and place it within square brackets.

Journal articles as forthcoming material

The articles accepted by the editor, or in press at the publisher, are to be considered as forthcoming material that is allowed as end text references, and should be edited as in the example below.


Chirila TV, Suzuki S, Papolla C. A comparative investigation of Bombyx mori silk fibroin hydrogels generated by chemical and enzymatic cross-linking. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. Forthcoming 2017.


The format indicated below is to be used according to the citation-sequence system.

Author(s). Book title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; Year. Extent (pagination).

Pagination (page interval) is necessary to be indicated only when a certain section of the book is of actual interest in the context of the manuscript. For citing a chapter, its full title must be given, followed by “In:”. The page interval of the cited chapter shall be indicated at the end of citation.


Fraústo da Silva JJR, Williams RJP. The biological chemistry of the elements: the inorganic chemistry of life. 2nd ed. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press; 2001.

Cooper GM, Hausman RE. The cell: a molecular approach. 6th ed. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2013.

Williams D. Essential biomaterials science. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press; 2014. (Cambridge texts in biomedical engineering).

Pébay A, editor. Regenerative biology of the eye. New York (NY): Springer; 2014. (Stem cell biology and regenerative medicine).

Casaroli-Marano RP, Zarbin MA, editors. Cell-based therapy for retinal degenerative disease. Basel (Switzerland): Karger AG; 2014. (Developments in ophthalmology; vol. 53).

Chirila TV, Harkin DG. An introduction to ophthalmic biomaterials and their role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In: Chirila TV, Harkin DG, editors. Biomaterials and regenerative medicine in ophthalmology. 2nd ed. Amsterdam (The Netherlands): Elsevier Ltd; 2016. p. 1-14. (Woodhead Publishing series in biomaterials; no. 12).

Do not insert “and” before the last author; a comma is both necessary and sufficient. When there are 2 to 10 authors, all of them must be listed. If more than 10 authors, the first 10 authors should be listed followed by a comma and “et al.”.

An e-book should be cited as in the following example.


Blumenberg M, editor. Melanin. Rijeka (Croatia): InTech; 2017 [accessed 2017 Mar 6].

Conference proceedings and papers

There is a significant variety in citing these sources as end text references, and they are typically associated with difficulties due to incomplete and non-uniform information. The following examples taken form the CSE Manual will cover most situations. Note that no letter italicization is to be used in editing these references. The rules for place of publication, publisher, and date of publication (year) are the same for conference proceedings as they are for books.

The authors should be aware that the conference proceedings are generally published by less known institutions, and seldom by established publishers.


Callaos N, Margenstern M, Zhang J, Castillo O, Doberkat EE, editors. SCI 2003. Proceedings of the 17th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics; 2003 Jul 27–30; Orlando, Fl. Orlando (FL): International Institute of Informatics and Systematics; 2003.

Lee DJ, Bates D, Dromey C, Xu X, Antani S. An imaging system correlating lip shapes with tongue contact patterns for speech pathology research. In: Krol M, Mitra S, Lee DJ, editors. CBMS 2003. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems; 2003 Jun 26–27; New York. Los Alamitos (CA): IEEE Computer Society; 2003. p. 307–313.

Sasaki Y, Nomura Y, editors. Symposium on Nasal Polyp; 1984 Oct 5–6; Tokyo, Japan. Stockholm (Sweden): Almquist & Wiksell; 1986.

Church JA, Marshall G, Lang W. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpure (TTP) in an HIV-infected child [abstract]. In: Morisset RA, editor. V International Conference on AIDS: the Scientific and Social Challenge; 1989 Jun 4–9, Montreal. Ottawa (ON): International Development Research Centre; 1989. p. 494.

Unpublished material

There are three types of unpublished material that are allowed to be cited as references in the journal.

(a) Communications or posters presented at meetings, which were never published except for being listed (accompanied by an abstract or not) in the conference flyers, can be cited following the model below. This type of unpublished material is the only one permitted as an end text reference.


Suzuki S, Delcroix O, McKirdy N, Chirila TV. Injectable silk fibroin hydrogels for ophthalmic delivery systems. Paper presented at: ARVO–Asia 2017. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology–Asia Meeting; 2017 Feb 5–8; Brisbane, Australia.

(b) Research results, not yet published, either from the author’s laboratory or from other laboratories.

(c) Personal communications, such as those originating from conversations, correspondence, official documents, or presentations at informal gatherings.

The materials under (b) and (c) are not allowed as end text references. They must be placed in the running text within round brackets. No italic letters shall be used in these citations. Additional details are allowed to be included within the brackets, as in the examples below.

Preferably, the author should provide with the submission a written permission from the cited person or organization. If such permission is mentioned in the Acknowledgements section, the additional statement “see Acknowledgements” should be also included in the text.   


… (2016 Johnson, unpublished results)

… (2005 Smith, letter to the author)

… (2003 Roberts, presentation at the staff meeting of …)

… (2010 Society for Biomaterials, internal memorandum; see Acknowledgements)


The general format for a reference to a patent is illustrated through the following examples.


Kubota S, inventor; Ogita Biomaterial Laboratories Co., assignee. Wound-covering materials and wound-covering composition. United States patent US 5,834,007. 1998 Nov 10.

Chirila TV, Constable IJ, Cooper RL, inventors; Lions Eye Institute of Western Australia, Inc., assignee. Method of making photoprotective hydrophilic polymer and ocular devices thereof. United States patent US 5,252,628. 1993 Oct 12.

Legeais J-M, Renard G, Anton M, inventors; France Chirurgie Instrumentation, assignee. Implant cornéen [Corneal implant]. French patent FR 2,649,605. 1989 Jul 13.

Hennig G, Lund O-E, inventors; Gerhard Hennig, assignee. Keratoprothese [Keratoprosthesis]. German patent DE 2,705,234. 1978 Aug 17.

The officially established 2-letter country codes are available in ISO 3166-1-alpha-2, which is the international standard for country codes, and can be accessed at: or at:

A selected list of the 2-letter codes is also available in the CSE Manual, p. 647, Appendix 29.3.

Do not insert “and” before the last author; a comma is both necessary and sufficient. When there are 2 to 10 authors, all of them must be listed. If more than 10 authors, the first 10 authors should be listed followed by a comma and “et al.”.


Note: Any submission to the journal Biomaterials and Tissue Technology (BTT) must consist of a COVER LETTER and a MANUSCRIPT, both written in the English language.

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